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Blutz Waves, or Green-spectrum Radiation, are an energy source emitted by large celestial bodies, such as a full moon or Earth (in Goku's case during Dragon Ball GT). When a Saiyan absorbs at least 17,000,000 waves of full celestial light through the retina, a reaction occurs in a Saiyan's body which, catalyzed by his tail, causes the Saiyan to transform into a ruthless Great Ape.
Bulma, while under the influence of Baby during the Baby Saga, created a machine that could amplify the effect of Blutz Waves to such a degree that a tail was not needed to achieve transformation. This machine was used to help Baby achieve his Golden Great Ape form, and later was pointed at Vegeta, allowing him to transform into Super Saiyan 4.
It appears that an artifically high concentration of Blutz Waves can also be used to re-energize a Great Ape. Using the same Blutz Wave Amplifier, Bulma was able to bring Golden Great Ape Baby back to full power after he was knocked out by Goku.
The term "Blutz Waves" was originally only given in Dragon Ball GT. In the remastered dialogue for Dragon Ball Z and Dragon Ball Z Kai, however, they are referred to as Blutz Waves as well.
In the original Japanese dub, this phenomenon is referred to as Bruits Waves, which is a pun on the words "Brute" and "Fruits".